# Increasing Speed of Yarn Spinning

| On 19, Aug 1999

TE 589A
Project
VikramJ Khona

Under theDirection of:

Dr. Michael S.Slocum
N.C.S.U.

Dr. Timothy G.Clapp
Professor
N.C.S.U.

## Problem

The system is the ring-spinning machine. The system consists of thespinning elements and the accessories for assisting the spinning elements. The fibers or filaments are given twist to form the yarn. The yarn passes throughthe traveller and gets wound on the package. The traveller goes around the ringinserting twist in the yarn, and there by the yarn being formed.

The problem lies in the fact that the speed of the spindle is restrictedto a about 25,000 rpm. The speed of the spindle is restricted by the ring andtraveller. The friction between the ring and traveller restricts the speed ofthe traveller on the ring-spinning machine. If the speed is increased more than25,000 rpm the heat generated due to friction burns the traveller and the systemcollapses. The system has to be improved to get higher spindle speeds there byhaving higher production.

The contradiction present in this system is a technical contradiction.The contradiction here is that if the speed of the spindle, which in turn thespeed of the traveler is increased, the heat generated due to friction increaseswhich in turn wears the traveller.

The contradiction can be transformed into a physical contradiction, whichis that if there should be friction present so that the yarn is wound on thepackage but it should not be present as it would heat up the traveller and wearsit out.

Ideality

The ideal solution for this system would be that the yarn is formed at ahigh spindle speed say 100,000 rpm, which means high production and the yarnhaving excellent properties.

The ideal final result can be achieved by removing the harmful functionwhich it the friction created between the ring and the traveller. This can beachieved by making the ring and traveller with a friction less material or byjust eliminating the traveller.

It can also be reached by replacing a particular element of the spinningsystem. The traveller and the ring can be replaced by some other mechanism whereby the twist is inserted to the material and the yarn being formed.

Ã˜Productivity(39)
Ã˜Durabilityof Moving Object (15)
Ã˜Speed (9)
Ã˜Waste ofSubstance (23)

Usingthe contradiction matrix the possible solution sets were determined and the bestpossible suited principles were the principle 35.Transformation of physical andchemical state of the object and 28.Replacement of the mechanical system.

Theprinciple 35 says to change the state of the object, which can be changing thehardness, density and/or surface finish of the ring and/or traveller.

Theprinciple 28 says to change the mechanical system, which can be to change themechanical system to an electromagnetic system so that the friction between thering and the traveller is reduced.

Levelsof Innovation

To find out which level of innovation this system is in at present,various factors of the levels of innovation was considered. After consideringthe factors the system is in between level 3 and level 4.

• There are alot of trial and error tests conducted

• There existsa strong sharp technical contradiction

• The scope ofknowledge applied so far is with the same field and from different fields

• There wasstrong characteristic change in the system

• There is aconsiderable impact on the knowledge of science

##### Innovative System Questionaire

Â·Information

• System name
Thesystem name is the ring-spinning machine. The machine consists of the spinningelements, which are the ring and the traveller and the auxiliary elements.

• Primaryfunction
Theprimary function of the system is to form yarn by introducing twist to thematerial, which is either fibers or filaments.

• Current ordesired system structure
Thesystem has the ring and traveller arrangement. The ring is mounted on a ringrail, which is driven by a differential. There is a lappet through which thematerial is guided to the traveller. The material flows from a package throughguides and passes through rollers.

• Functioningof the system
Thematerial is unwound from the package, which is placed on the back of the packagewith tension. The material passes through guides and them to the back roller andthen to the front roller. The material is drafted between the two rollers. Thedrafted material is then passes though the lappet and then to the travellerwhich is mounted on the ring. The twisted yarn is then wound on another packagemounted on the spindle. The spindle is driven positively.

Thespindle is rotating at around 25000 rpm. The yarn is passed through the rollersand then guided down with the lappet and then passed though the traveller andgets wound on the package. The traveller revolves around the ring introducingtwist. The traveller is negatively driven by the spindle.

• Systemenvironment
The whole system interacts with the air, which surrounds the machine.
The system interacts with the operator
The system interacts with the other machines of same kind and other kinds
The system has a power source to run the motor

Â·AvailableResources

• Substanceresource
Thesubstance resources that are present in the system are the ring and thetraveller, the spindle, air, moisture, material, waste, etc.

• Fieldresource
Thefield resources present in the system is the mechanical field which creates thefrictional and a mechanical field which produces the yarn.

• Functionalresource
Thefunctional resource is the function of the mechanism by which the ring and thetraveler produces the yarn by twisting the material.

• Timeresource
Thetime resource is the time required to produce the yarn.

Â·Informationof Problem Situation

• Desiredimprovement to system and/or function to eliminate
Theimprovement to be achieved is to increase the speed of the spindle, which inturn increase the speed of the traveller making the system more productive.Another improvement to be achieved is to make better quality yarn.

• Mechanismthat causes drawback
Thedrawback of the system is its speed capability. The speed is limited and theneed has reached to increase the speed of the system to make it more productive.The friction between the ring and the traveller is reach to an extent, whichcauses the traveler to burn out. The drawback is in the ring and travellermechanism of the system.

• History ofthe problem
Therehave been a lot of studies conducted on the effect of increasing the travellerspeed on the yarn quality and on the life of the traveller. The system hasdeveloped form stages where the speeds were slower and it has reached to a stagewhere the spindle speed is 25000 rpm.

• Secondaryand tertiary problems
Thesecondary problem to be solved is to reduce the tension of the yard in thespinning range so that there is no end break. The tension should not exceed thetensile strength of the yarn. If so the yarn will break and the system willfail.

Â·Changing theSystem

• Allowablechanges to the system
Theallowable change in the system is to maintain the twisting mechanism of using aring and traveller or similar system where the twist is inserted in the same wayas the ring and traveller system.

• Limitationsto the changes to the system
Thechange in the system should not be expensive. The cost of the changes should notincrease the cost of making the same production with the increased capacity ofold systems.

Thechanges should be in technically feasible for the present time. It should beachievable in the present

Â·Criteria forSelecting Solution Concepts

• Desiredtechnological characteristics
Thedesired technological characteristic that the system should have is a mechanismby which the twist is inserted in the same fashion how it is inserted by thering and traveller mechanism.

• Desiredeconomical characteristics
Thedesired economical characteristic the system should have is that it should bepractically feasible to be commercially viable. The cost of the changed systemshould be profitable to implement.

• Desiredtimetable

• Expecteddegree of novelty
Thesystem should be different and new in a way that it has better productivity andquality of yarn produced than the old system.

• Other
Thesystem should not consume a lot of floor space.

Â·History ofAttempted Solutions

• Previousattempts
Therehad been previous attempts made to improve the speed of the ring and travellersystem. These attempts have improved to an extent. The main difficulty faced bythese attempts is with the traveller burning out.

• Other systemthat exhibit similar problems
Othersystems that exhibit similar problem was not successfully identified.

#### Algorithm of Inventive Problem Solving – ARIZ

1Mini Problem Formulation

1.1Key problem

 (+) Increasingproduction Increasing thespeed of the spindle (-) Traveller heating up and wearing out

The problem is theheat generated because of friction between the ring and the traveller is highwhen the speed of the spindle is increased causing the traveller to burn-out.

1.2Useful function

The usefulfunction is to increase the spindle speed, which increases the traveller speed.The product of the useful function is increased production.

1.3Harmful function

The harmfulfunction is the friction between the ring and the traveller creating heat, whichultimately burns out the traveller.

1.4Common elements in useful and harmful functions

The common elementis the friction in both useful and harmful function.

1.5Graphic scheme of the conflict

 Increase in production Increasingspindle speed Traveler heating up and wearing out

1.6Discover form the problem description

 (+) Very high production Running thespindle at very high speed (-) Burning the traveller

1.7Formulate the functional initial contradiction (IC-1)

If the spindlespeed is very fast then (+) the production is very high but (-) the travellerburns out.

1.8Reverse key knot

 (+) Traveller does not heat up Decreasingspindle speed (-) Decrease in production

1.9Reverse conflict

 Low production Decreasein spindle speed Traveler not heating up

1.10Formulate the functional initial contradiction (IC-2)

Ifthe spindle speed is low then (+) it reduces the production but (-) does notheat up the traveller.

1.11Formulate the mini problem

Thesystem is to make yarn by twisting the material, with the help of the ring andthe traveller where the traveller is driven negatively by the spindle.

IC-1:If the spindle speed is very fast then (+) the production is very high but (-)the traveller burns out.

ICâ€“ 2: If the spindle speed is low then (+) it reduces the production but (-)does not heat up the traveller.

2The Pseudo-Fundamental Contradiction Formulating and Resolving

The speed of thespindle should be high for producing the yarn fast and should be low toeliminate the heating of the traveller due to friction

The separationprinciples are used and it can be resolved by separating the ring and thetraveller in space. This way there is no friction between the ring and travellerand the spindle speed can be increased.

3Conflict Enforcement

3.1Enforce the conflict from IC-1

Very high speed ofthe spindle so that the production is willingly increased. This formulationgives the importance of speed in production.

3.2Enforce the conflict from IC-2

To produce yarnwithout the rotation of spindle. This is possible if only the traveller isdriven with another source and not form the spindle.

4Formulating Directions for Solutions

4.1Formulate the model of problem for the conflict IC-1

The speed of thespindle increases the speed of the traveller which increases the frictioncreated between the ring and the traveller.

 Increase in production Increasingspindle speed Traveler heating up and wearing out

It is essential tointroduce an resource which prevents the heating up of the traveller andmaintains the speed of the traveller.

4.2Formulate the model of problem for the conflict IC-2

The low speed ofthe spindle keeps the traveller cool, but does not increase the production.

 Low production Decreasein spindle speed Traveler not heating up

It is essential tointroduce a resource, which provides the traveller energy to have high speed andthe same time keeps the traveller from wearing out.

5Using Substance-Field Transformations

5.1Render the initial SU-Field model for the problem on step 4.1

The SU-field modelmade with IC-1 is that the work piece is the ring in which the traveller isplaced. The tool is the traveller and the field created it the friction. It is amechanical field. There is a harmful relation ship between the work piece andthe tool creating friction. There is a useful and harmful relation ship betweenthe traveller and the field friction as it is needed for winding and not neededas it causes wear of the traveller.

5.2Try to solve the problem with SU-Field model from step 5.1

Inorder to remove the harmful functions the 76 standard solution set was referredand the SU-field model was solved. A field has to be added between the ring andthe traveller to resolve the harmful effect. A substance is added between thefield created and the traveller to direct the harmful function to anintermediate substance and thus the SU-field model is solved.

The substance thatis added between the field (friction) and the traveller is a void substance. Thefield added between the ring and the traveller is a electromagnetic field.

6Operational Zone Analysis and Resources Discovering

6.1Determine the operational zones (OZ)

6.2Determine the operational and resource time (OT and RT)

The operationaltime and the resource time could not be determined. But it is very short as thespeed of the machine is very high. It is in the terms of milliseconds.

6.3Operational zones picture

The operationalzones picture is shown in the figure above.

6.4Describe the operational zone picture

The conflictpresent here is in between the ring and the traveller. The ring and thetraveller come in contact with each other in the inner surface of the ring asshown in the figure.

6.5Mark useful, harmful, insufficient, and excessive substances, fields,properties, processes and flows.

Usefulfunction, but insufficient;

To produce the yarn
To produce the yarn at a fast rate

Harmfulfunctions;

Generation of friction
Wearing of the traveller

6.6Draw the relative picture of events going on in the OZâ€™s

MLPmodeling (was)

Inthe MLP modeling we can see clearly what is going on in the zone of conflict. Wecan use the smart little people to simulate the process. There are two groups ofsmart little peopleâ€™s. The SLP1 is the group in the traveller, and the SLP2are the group in the ring. When the ring and the traveller is in working theSLP2 and the SLP1 fight eachother killing the SLP1, causing the wear of thetraveller. This is because SLP1 are weaker than the SLP2.

MLPmodel (should be)

In the should bemodel of the MLP modeling we can resolve the conflict by introducing anothergroup of smart little people in between the two, preventing the conflict. TheSLP3 will not let SLP1 and SLP2 come in conflict and there by the wear on thetraveller can be avoided.

6.7Estimate the resources

The resources thatis present in the system are ring, traveller, material, spindle, package, air,waste fly, temperature, humidity, moisture, pressure, oxygen, balloon controlrings, lappet, etc.

7Initial Ideal Result (IIR) Formulation

7.1Describe the IIR

 For IC-1 For IC-2 X-resource X-resource Without system complication Without system complication Without harmful consequences Without harmful consequences Prevents overheating of the traveller Provides energy to the traveller to produce yarn Maintains the force required to produce the yarn at a fast rate Maintains complete absence of the heat generated on the traveller

7.2Step back from IIR

It can be idealthat the molecules of the traveller dissipate the heat to the environment or thering with the help of a void substance.

7.3Create a preliminary portrait of X-Resource

The x-resourceshould be able to pass the heat generated from the traveller to the environment.

The x-resourceshould be able to allow easy movement of the traveller around the ring.

The x-resourceshould be easy to use.

7.4Take resources from step 5.7 as X-Resource

The resources thatare present in the system that can act as the x-resource is air and moisture

7.5Find a method to perform the X-Resource actions formulated

The x-resource canbe a magnetic field that can repel the ring and the traveller so that there isno contact between the ring and the traveller and thereby avoiding friction.

7.6Try to find a trade-off solution of the problem with minimum deviationsfrom IIR requirements

The solution thatcan be achieved is that by using a electromagnetic field between the ring andthe traveller so that the ring and the traveller repels there by preventing themto come in contact with each other.

7.7Choose the main resource and formulate the enforced IIR

The main resourceused here is a electromagnetic field. This is not an available resource. Thering and the traveller can be oppositely charged preventing them to come incontact with each other.

The x-resourceshould be present between the ring and traveller at all the time to prevent themto contact each other to avoid heating, but it should not be present to providesome friction for the yarn to wind in the package.

8.2Formulate the fundamental contradiction for process

The contradictionin the process it that the friction created between the ring and travellerduring spinning causes heat and friction is also needed to wind the yarn in thepackage.

8.3Formulate the fundamental contradiction for macro-state

8.4Formulate the fundamental contradiction for micro-state

8.5Formulate the fundamental contradiction for flow

Thefundamental contradiction for flow is that the heat energy should flow to theenvironment but should not pass to the rest of the traveller.

The x-resourceshould be of such properties that it should conduct heat to the ring from thetraveller but at the same time it should be viscous to provide some resistanceto the movement of the traveller in the ring.

9.2Resolve the fundamental contradiction for process

The fundamentalcontradiction for process can be resolved by using a substance or a field thathas both the required properties.

9.3Resolve the fundamental contradiction for macro-state

9.4Resolve the fundamental contradiction for micro-state

9.5Resolve the fundamental contradiction for flow

The flow of theenergy is resolved by suing a substance that transmits the heat energy form thezone of conflict to the environment.

10The Ideal Final Result (IFR) Formulating

10.1Formulate the IFR for the brief fundamental contradiction

Theadditional resource should provide the necessary characteristics of thenecessary x-resource during the spinning process to prevent the heating up ofthe traveller.

10.2Formulate the IFR for process

Theideal final result of a process should be that there is no friction created togenerate heat, but there should be friction to wind the yarn in the package.

10.3Formulate the IFR for macro-state

10.4Formulate the IFR for micro-state

10.5Formulate the IFR for flow

Theideal final result for flow is that it should transmit all the heat generated bythe traveller to the environment.

11Solving the New Fundamental Problem in IFR Formulation

11.1Solve new fundamental problem in IFR using resources discovered on step6.4

Nonew fundamental problem.

11.2Solve new fundamental problem in IFR using SU-Field Transformations

Noneed to solve if there are no problems.

11.3Solve new fundamental problem in IFR using the final portrait of requiredproblem solving phenomenon

Noneed to solve.

11.4Solve secondary problems if necessary

Nosecondary problems.

#### Conclusions

The TRIZ tools were used to solve the problem of improving theproductivity of ring spinning. Ring spinning technology is very important andun-substituable until now. It has reached a matured state. TRIZ tools were usedto improve the system and the results are stated;

Ã¼Change thehardness, density, material and/or the surface finish of the ring and traveller.
Ã¼Use a fieldbetween the ring and the traveller. The field can be a magnetic field.
Ã¼Use a voidsubstance between the ring and the traveller. The substance could be air orlubricant.
Ã¼Suspend thering in a electromagnetic field without the traveller, which gives the sameeffect as a ring and traveller and there is no question about friction to hearup a traveller since there is no traveller present.

Thesesolutions are applicable either at present or in a future date. The lastsolution where in a electromagnetic field is used to suspend the ring in spaceis a solution which can be achieved in a future date as the present technologyis not applicable.

Thusby using the TRIZ tools the solution of the problem is achieved with a higherlevel of innovation.